My Top 20 films of 2016

Hi there,

Obviously, it just seems that this blog has been left dusty for more than a year. Therefore, I would like to apologise for not being able to do as I promised – lol. However, for this year, I am trying my best to put more efforts in blogging, so we will see it in a year if I will be able to do so.

Anyway, as usual, please find my 2016’s list of those impressive films – at least for myself, as below;

*Note: Titles listed in alphabetical order

10 Most Favourites of 2016

  • Brooklyn (John Crowley)
  • Creepy (Kiyoshi Kurosawa)
  • Hell or High Water (David Mackenzie)
  • Manchester by the Sea (Kenneth Lonergan)
  • Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (Gareth Edwards)
  • Sing Street (John Carney)
  • The Handmaiden (Park Chan-wook)
  • The Revenant (Alejandro González Iñárritu)
  • The Wailing (Na Hong-jin)
  • The Witch (Robert Eggers)

10 Notable Mentions of 2016 

  • A Monster Calls (Juan Antonio Bayona)
  • Always Shine (Sophia Takal)
  • High-Rise (Ben Wheatley)
  • Lion (Garth Davis)
  • Room (Lenny Abrahamson)
  • Son of Saul (László Nemes)
  • Suddenly Twenty (Araya Suriharn)
  • The Neon Demon (Nicolas Winding Refn)
  • The Nice Guys (Shane Black)
  • Train to Busan (Yeon Sang-ho)
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My Top 20 (+1) films of 2015

Greeting,

Haven’t been here for a while, I’m afraid – since I have always been tangled up in  lots of works and travels, and perhaps facebooking and twittering are much easier than blogging.

Anyway, as personal routine for NY celebration, here below is the list of those films I have seen in 2015 and impressed me most;

10 Most Favourites of 2015

  • Anomalisa (Charlie Kaufman and Duke Johnson)
  • Carol (Todd Haynes)
  • Cemetery of Splendour (Apichatpong Weerasethakul)
  • Crimson Peak (Guillermo del Toro)
  • It Follows (David Robert Mitchell)
  • Macbeth (Justin Kurzel)
  • Mad Max: Fury Road (George Miller)
  • The Hateful Eight (Quentin Tarantino)
  • The Imitation Game (Morten Tyldum)
  • The Lobster (Yorgos Lanthimos)

10(+1) Notable Mentions of 2015 

  • Ex Machina (Alex Garland)
  • February (Osgood Perkins)
  • Freelance (Nawapol Thamrongrattanarit)
  • Krisha (Trey Edward Shults)
  • Love (Gaspar Noé)
  • PK (Rajkumar Hirani)
  • Snap (Kongdej Jaturanrasamee)
  • Star Wars: The Force Awakens (J. J. Abrams)
  • Tale of Tales (Matteo Garrone)
  • The Martian (Ridley Scott)
  • The World of Kanako (Tetsuya Nakashima)

Happy New Year 2016!

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10 ประเด็นคิดได้จาก “Maleficent”

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คำเตือน: น่าจะมีสปอยด์

1. อีกหนึ่งโปรเจ็คที่หลายคนรอคอย กับการหยิบยกเอานิทานเทพนิยายเก่าๆ มาตีความแล้วเล่าใหม่ ดังนั้นกระบวนการสร้างบทของหนังเรื่องนี เป็นการเดินตามรอย “Oz the Great and Powerful” และ “Alice in Wonderland” เด๊ะๆ แบบตีนต่อตีนครับผม แล้วที่เจ็บปวดกว่านั้นคือส่วนตัวยังคิดว่าทั้งสองเรื่องก่อนหน้ายังมีลูกเล่นมากกว่าเทพนิยายจับผลัดจับผลูเรื่องนี้ แล้ว Tim Burton หรือ Sam Raimi ก็มีความสามารถในการสร้างหนังมากกว่า Robert Stromberg ที่คงเป็นได้เพียงแค่คนสร้างภาพบนจอ

2. งานภาพคือสิ่งที่ดีที่สุดของหนังค่ายดิสนีย์มาแต่ไหนแต่ไร โดยเฉพาะในช่วง 10 ปีให้หลังมานี้ เช่นกันกับในเรื่องนี้ที่ทางทีมงานสามารถเนรมิต (ไม่ใช่สร้างเฉยๆ แต่ขั้นนี้ต้องเป็นเนรมิต) ภาพในเทพนิยายให้เราสัมผัสได้ในระดับใกล้เคียงกับตอนที่คุณน้า James Cameron ทำ “Avatar” ได้แปลกใหม่ และทำ “Titanic” ได้ยิ่งใหญ่ ฉันใดก็ฉันนั้น ประเด็นนี้ขอชื่นชมปรบมือเปาะแปะโยนโยน

3. ส่วนที่ควรจะปรับปรุง (เสียที) ของดิสนีย์ในช่วง 10 ปีให้หลังนี้คือการสร้างเรื่องและการดำเนินเรื่องราว จริงอยู่ว่าดิสนีย์เคยเป็นหนึ่งตองอูนันทบุเรงยังเกรง โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งเรื่องการสร้างสรรค์อะไรใหม่ๆ ให้กับวงการภาพยนตร์ แต่นี่มันไม่ใหม่เลยครับ ไม่เลย โปรเจคแบบ “เรื่องเก่าเล่าใหม่” (ที่ดีกว่านี้) เค้าก็ทำกันมาบ่อยแล้ว (ดั่งที่กล่าวไปแล้วในข้อ 1 และอาจจะรวมถึงนิยาย “Wicked” ของ Gregory Maguire) แล้วยิ่งเรื่องนี้เป็นการเล่าใหม่แบบ “ทาสีขาวทับสีดำ ทาสีดำทับสีขาว” ห้วนๆ กำปั้นบาซูทุบดินแดงห้วยขวาง ประมาณนั้น อะไรที่แบบเราเคยเข้าใจว่ามันเลวมันดาร์ค ตูก็ปรับให้มันสว่างขึ้นแม่งเลย แล้วก็ไปยัดคุณลักษณะขั้วตรงข้ามใส่ไปให้อีกฝั่งให้มัน เออ เท่านั้นแหละ จบเลย – อะไรกันเว้ยเฮ้ย ง่ายไปไหมครับผม เข้าใจว่าพี่ทำตามขนบเทพนิยาย แต่ไหนๆ จะ rationalise แล้ว พี่ก็ช่วยทำให้มันทั่วถึงได้ไหมครับ ไม่ใช่แค่ทำให้ตัวละครหลักเพียงตัวเดียว

4. ด้วยเหตุที่ว่าหนังชื่อ “Maleficent” ดังนั้นหนังจะโฟกัสที่คาแรกเตอร์ของตัวภูติ (ที่ว่ากันว่า) ร้ายตนนี้ ซึ่งอันนี้ Angelina Jolie ทำได้ไม่เลว เออ ถ้าจะให้ถูกก็คือเธอไม่ต้องใช้ความพยายามมากอะไรเลย แค่เล่นตามมาตรฐานของตัวเอง (แต่ไม่ได้เล่นเป็นตัวเอง) เพราะตัวละครตัวคือตัวละคร CG ที่แสนแบนราบ แล้วที่น่าเศร้ากว่านั้นคือตัวละครที่เล่นโดยมนุษย์ตัวอื่นๆ ทุกตัวแบนยิ่งกว่าตัวละคร CG ในเมืองมัวร์เสียอีก

5. พล็อตเรื่องเมโล๊เมโลดราม่า ผู้หญิงมีปมถูกผู้ชายเอาเปรียบเลยตามมาล้างแค้น นี่มันพล๊อต ” I Spit on You Grave” ชัดๆ แต่แค่อบด้วยกลิ่นละครหลังข่าวช่อง 5 สมัยก่อนนำแสดงโดยฟลุ๊ก เกริกพล กับอ้อม พิยดา ประมาณนั้น ที่นึกจะยัดบทอะไรก็ยัด ดนตรีก็ประโคมโหมกันเข้าไปแบบไม่มีบีทว่างให้พักหู ฉากเศร้ากลัวเศร้าไม่พอ กรูยัดเพลงแม่งใส่ทันที ฉากต่อสู้กลัวบิ๊วไม่มัน กรูยัดเพลงแม่งใส่ทันที เอ๊าาาา ความพอดีพี่อยู่ที่ไหนครับผม

6. มีวูบนึงที่เรารู้สึกว่า “เฮ้ย นี่มันเจ๋งเหมือนกันนะ” นั่นคือตอนที่ได้เห็น Sharlto Copley เล่นเป็นมนุษย์ปกติ (แค่ช่วงหนึ่ง) ก่อนที่จะกลายเป็นพี่กุ้ง “District 9” ที่คาแรกเตอร์แสนจะแบนราบเป็นกล้วยปิ้งตกพื้นแล้วถูกสิบล้อทับไปตามระเบียบ เช่นเดียวกันกับนางฟ้าสามช่า (ใช่ มันคือคาแรกเตอร์ หม่ำ เท่ง โหน่ง จริงๆ) อันประกอบด้วย Lesley Manville, Imelda Staunton และ Juno Temple ที่น่ารำคาญมากกว่าจะชวนให้รู้สึกขำ ทั้งๆ ที่เป็นนักแสดงชั้นนำมีรางวัลการันตีมากมาย แล้วยิ่งถีบเราออกห่างจากตัวหนัง ส่วนณเดชฝรั่งอย่าง Brenton Thwaites (เด็กปั้นจาก “Oculus”) หรือแม้แต่ Sam Riley นักแสดงเจ้าของรางวัล Rising Star จากเวที BAFTA ปี 2008 ก็มาโผล่ทื่อๆ วูบๆ แบบพี่ใช้ไอ้อาร์ตี้ ศรีธนญชัย 555+ ไปเล่นบทพวกนี้ก็ได้ครับ ไม่ต้องใช้ดารามีดีกรีหรอกครับผม (หรือบางตัวไม่ต้องมีเลยก็ได้ เปลืองค่าข้าวกล่องครับผม)

7. น้อง Elle Fanning คืออีกสิ่งดีงาม ถึงบทน้องจะแบน (บทจ้า บท) พี่ขอสวมบทบาทลุงตู่มอบรางวัล “รอยยิ้มพิมพ์ใจคืนความสุขให้ประชาชน” กับน้องหญิง แฟนเฉย (แฟนนิ่ง!) คือบทมันไม่ส่งตัวละครอื่นๆ เลยอ่ะครับ ทำยังไงได้ ใจคอคุณคนเขียนบทจะให้ Maleficent แม่งเป็นมนุษย์คนเดียวในหมู่มวลตัวละครในเทพนิยายหรือครับ อย่าเลย ผมกลัวเธอเหงาอ้างว้างเปล่าเปลี่ยว อ่อ น้อง Vivienne Jolie-Pitt โอโรร่าวัย 5 ขวบนั้นน่ารักมาก เคมีเข้ากันกับคุณแม่ได้ดีทีเดียว (ก็แม่ลูกกันนี่นะ) ซึ่งถ้าคุณพ่อคุณแม่อยากให้ลูกสาวอยู่ในวงการต่อไป เราก็เป็นกำลังใจให้ แต่ก็หวังว่าอย่าลงเอยแบบคุณน้อง Jaden Smith กับพระบิดาใน “After Earth” แล้วกัน

8. ชื่อหนัง รวมถึงชื่อตัวละคร “Maleficent” นั้นออกเสียงว่า /เมอะ-เล๊-ฟิ-เซิ่น/ (/məˈlɛfəsənt/) แล้วก็ต้องเน้นพยางค์ที่สองตอนออกเสียงด้วย ดังนั้นพวกที่ยังเล่นมุก “ขุ่นแม่มาลี” อยู่อันนี้คือผิดนะครับ เราขอแนะนำให้ออกเสียงว่า “ขุ่นแม่มาเล๊” แทนแล้วกันนะ (อันนี้อ้างจากที่ฟังมาจากหนังนะ ถ้าผิดยังไง รอพวกสายภาษาศาสตร์มาอธิบายอีกทีแล้วกัน)

9. คอสตูม Maleficent ฉากต่อสู้สุดท้ายนี่น่าจะได้รับแรงบันดาลใจมากจากตัวละคร Selina Kyle (“The Dark Knight Rises”) ตอนดูเธอสู้ๆ อยู่นี่นึกภาพเธอพูด ” There’s a storm coming, Mr. Wayne” แล้วมันใช่เลยอ่ะ ตบเข่าฉาดป๊าบป๊าบ ชุดไม่ต้องเตรียมมาแอคชั่นกระชับแน่นขนาดนั้นก็ได้ แหม่ กลัวคนดูจะเข้าไม่ถึงทุกกลุ่มหรือครับ เห็นคุณมาเล๊แกสู้ทียังกับดู Catwoman หรือ Trinity จาก “The Matrix” เลยทีเดียว ซึ่งมันไม่ใช่อ่ะครับ ยิ่งตอนสุดท้ายที่เธอได้พลังคืนมาจากปีกแล้วสามารถสยบทุกสิ่งอย่าง แม่เจ้าาาาาา อะไรมันจะขนาดนั้นครับผม ง่ายไปไหมครับ

10. หนังปูพื้นด้วยความสัมพันธ์ของตัวละคร Maleficent และ Stefan ในวัยเด็ก ซึ่งน้องเด็กทั้งสองก็พูดภาษาอังกฤษด้วยสำเนียงอังกฤษที่ชัดมาก (ไม่เข้าใจเหมือนกันว่าหนังเทพนิยายทำไมต้องพูดสำเนียงอังกฤษ) พอโตขึ้นมาเป็น Angelina Jolie (ที่พยายามพูดติดสำเนียงบ้าง แต่ไม่แรงเท่าน้องเด็ก) ขณะที่น้องเด็กชาย Stefan โตขึ้นมาเป็นพี่กุ้ง Sharlto Copley จ้าาาาาาาาาาาาาา สำเนียงอาฟริกาใต้ชัดๆ ยังกะหลุดมาจากเรื่อง “District 9” ไม่มีอะไรจ้าาาาา ไม่ได้รักผัวมากมาย แต่แค่อยากจะบอกว่าขัดใจสำเนียงมากเลยจ้าาาาาาาาา

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10 ประเด็นคิดได้จาก “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”

walter-mitty

1. Ben Stiller อาจจะหน้าตาดูบ้องตื้นเสมอต้นเสมอปลายตั้งแต่หนุ่มจนเหี่ยว แต่จริงๆ แล้ว filmography ในฐานะผู้กำกับหนังของเขานั้นเข้าขั้นหล่อขั้นเทพเลยนะ ตั้งแต่ Reality Bites, The Cable Guy, Zoolander และ Tropic Thunder เรื่อยมาจนเรื่องปัจจุบันนี้ (นี่ยังไม่นับหนังที่เขาเป็น producer นะ)

2. ระบบเสียง Dolby Atmos ซึ่งเขาว่าพัฒนาจากระบบ 7.1 ที่ทำให้สามารถขับเสียงเสมือนจริงได้ 3 มิติ โดยส่วนตัวคิดว่าเราเองยังหูไม่เทพพอที่จะรู้สึกถึงข้อแตกต่าง (สำหรับหนังเรื่องนี้) ว่าลำโพงมันเยอะแล้วมันยังไงฟะ คงน่าจะเป็นประมาณการสักคิ้ว 3 มิติที่ดูยังไงมันก็ยังเป็นคิ้วดำๆ แบนๆ อยู่ดี

3. หนังเกี่ยวกับชายวัยกลางคนออกเดินทางตามหาอะไรสักอย่างในชีวิต ดังนั้นเราจะเรียกหนังประเภทนี้ว่า “Coming of Middle Age” ประมาณ Sideways ของ Alexander Payne ฉบับแทรกเพิ่มองค์ประกอบความมหัศจรรย์เข้าไปในส่วนที่ตัวเอกของเราพุ่งเข้าไปโลดแล่นในจินตนาการขณะโลกแห่งความเป็นจริงก็ยังดำเนินอยู่ — เฮ้ย นี่มันน้องๆ The Matrix เลยนะครับพี่น้อง

4. ด้วยการเล่าเรื่องที่เรียบง่าย มีเส้นเรื่องหลักที่วิ่งตรง นั้นทำให้หนังดูสบายๆ เหมือนดูสารคดีชีวิตสัตว์โลกเรื่องหนึ่ง พร้อมการสอดแทรกภาพในจินตนาการของพ่อมิตตี้ ชัยบัญชาเป็นเส้นเรื่องสอดแทรก ที่คอยกระตุกเบาะเดาะตูดให้ผู้คนไม่เบื่อไปกับความเนิบนาบของในช่วงครึ่งแรกของหนัง นอกจากนั้นยังชอบภาพทิวทัศน์ในส่วนครึ่งหลังของเรื่องที่สวยงามราวกับหลุดมาจากนิตยสาร National Geographic เลยทีเดียว

5. ชอบนัยยะของความเป็นปฏิพากย์ของหลายๆ สิ่งในหนัง เช่น การเล่าเรื่องของการบุกป่าฝ่าเขาเมาทะเลออกตามหา Quest (ตามขนบพล๊อตหนังแฟนตาซี) ผ่านเรื่องราวใน สนพ. นิตยสารและภาพเล่าเรื่องแนวสารคดี (ที่สะท้อนให้เห็นเรื่องจริง) หรือจะเป็นชื่อนิตยสาร Life (ชีวิต) ที่พนักงาน (ส่วนใหญ่) ทำงานแบบไร้ชีวิตซังกะตายรอวันโดนเชิญออก รวมทั้งการเปลี่ยนแปลงของนิตยสาร Life จะกลายมาเป็น E-นิตยสารแบบดิจิตอล แต่ก็ยังต้องใช้ภาพจากกล้องฟิล์มของเฮียติสต์อยู่ดี ประมาณนั้น

6. นักแสดงหลักนอกเหนือจากตัวละครมิตตี้ก็นำเสนอออกมาได้ค่อนข้างน่าประทับใจ เป็นตัวละครที่เกือบแบนเกือบกลม โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งตัวละครของ Adam Scott ในบทเกรียนผู้ทรงอำนาจ ณ ออฟฟิศ ที่เหมือนโดนตั้งโหมดมาให้เกรียนเหวอเอ๋อแดกเฉยๆ ไม่มีอะไร หรือแม้แต่ Sean Penn ที่มารับบทช่างภาพสุดติสต์ (ช่างเป็นบทที่เหมาะสมเสียนี่กระไร) ก็ไม่ได้ทำอะไรนอกจากติสต์ไปวันๆ แล้วก็พูดคำคม ที่จริงถ้า ผกก. อยากลดต้นทุน แนะนำให้จ้างซันนี่ไข่ย้อยไปเล่นแทน แต่ทุกอย่างก็พอให้อภัยได้เพราะหนังโฟกัสที่การออกเดินทางและค้นพบของมิตตี้ ตัวละครอื่นๆ ก็คงไม่ต่างอะไรกับทิวทัศน์และประสบการณ์อื่นๆ ที่เจอระหว่างทาง

7. การทำโฆษณาแฝงที่ดีเป็นลาภอันประเสริฐ นอกจากสปอนเซอร์จะฟินแล้วผู้ชมยังไม่รู้สึกรำคาญอีกด้วย ดูไว้นะครัชคุณ Marc Forster และช็อตกระดกน้ำดำในตำนานของ World War Z

8. เพลงประกอบชวนให้นึกถึงเพลงอารมณ์ประมาณ Scandinavian Pop/Rock อินดี้ๆ ที่มีการใช้ซาวน์เปียโนซินธิไซเซอร์เยอะๆ ขณะที่เพลงในตัวอย่างหนังนั้นชวนให้นึกถึงวง U2 อู้หูไม่รู้เป็นอะไร ข้าพเจ้าขอชื่นชม José González ศิลปินชาวสวีดิชผู้ทำเพลงประกอบ (ส่วนใหญ่) มา ณ ที่นี้ด้วย ส่วน Space Oddity นี่แม่งโครตใช่อ่ะครับ (อันนี้ส่วนตัว)

9. ค่าย FOX ปล่อยเรื่องนี้ลงโรงบ้านเราเป็นเรื่องสุดท้ายของปี 2013 (หรือเปล่า?) ราวกับจะต้องการส่งความสุขให้กับผู้ชมชาวไทย ดูแล้วซุ๊กสุข บอกเลยว่าหนังตลกในระดับขำหึหึในลำคอ ลุ้นในระดับป๊อบป๊อบชิลชิล แต่ทำให้เรายิ้มได้ในระดับที่โครตพีค ขออนุญาตมอบรางวัล “ฟีลกึ๊ด / Feel Good” แห่งปี 2013 ให้หนังเรื่องนี้ 

10. ผู้ชมจงพึงสังวรว่านักแสดงฝรั่งไม่จำเป็นต้องรับบทอะไรเดิมที่ตัวเองมักจะเล่นอยู่เสมอๆ เหมือนนักแสดงไทย (ตัวอย่างเช่น เป้ อารักษ์ไม่จำเป็นต้องเซอร์แดก น้าค่อมไม่จำเป็นต้องเหี้ยสัด หรือแอนนาไม่จำเป็นต้องยาเสียบเตียด ฯลฯ) เช่นเดียวกับ Ben Stiller ที่ไม่จำเป็นต้องรับบทตลกเสมอไปนะจ๊ะ ขอบอก โดยเฉพาะอีนั่งข้างขวา อีขำดังลั่น อีเจื้อยแจ้วเจรจา กับเรื่องนี้ที่ตัวละครมันไม่ฮา มันไม่ตลก มันเศร้าเว้ยยยยเฮ้ยยยยย

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My Top 20 (+1) films of 2013

Greeting,

First of all, I would like to say “Happy New Year” and hope this 201 4 will be another great and prosperous year for everyone.

Anyway, it’s been a while that I haven’t logged onto the blog since my MA graduation. Sadly, but here on the first day of 2014, I would like to recap those films I have seen and been impressed through 2013.

Here is the recap for my “personal” 2013’s top moving pictures on screen;

10 Most Favourites of 2013

– Blackfish (Gabriela Cowperthwaite)
– Blue Is the Warmest Colour (Abdellatif Kechiche)
– Conjuring, The (James Wan)
– Gravity (Alfonso Cuarón)
– Inside Llewyn Davis (Joel and Ethan Coen)
– Prisoners (Denis Villeneuve)
– Rush (Ron Howard)
– Snowpiercer (Bong Joon-ho)
– Spring Breakers (Harmony Korine)
– Tang Wong (Kongdej Jaturanrasamee)

 

10(+1) Notable Mentions of 2013 

– Act of Killing, The (Joshua Oppenheimer and Christine Cynn)
– Blue Jasmine (Woody Allen)
– Don Jon (Joseph Gordon-Levitt)
– Frozen (Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee)
– Great Gatsby, The (Baz Luhrmann)
– Like Father, Like Son (Hirokazu Koreeda)
– Mary is Happy, Mary is Happy (Nawapol Thamrongrattanarit)
– Misérables, Les (Tom Hooper)
– Only God Forgives (Nicolas Winding Refn)
– Secret Life of Walter Mitty, The (Ben Stiller)
– Paradoxocracy (Pen-Ek Ratanaruang and Pasakorn Pramoolwong)

 

2014….BRING IT ON!!

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How does the representation of the postmodern city and its people in The Perfect Blue (1998) and Paprika (2006) offer a neo-noir vision of urban space?


The Perfect Blue (1998) / Paprika (2006)

Directed by Satoshi Kon

How does the representation of the postmodern city and its people in The Perfect Blue and Paprika offer a neo-noir vision of urban space?

Speaking of contemporary Japanese film makers who really impact the world by their cinematic works, if there is the name of Satoshi Kon, the animator, appearing in that list, this will not be a surprise at all. Regarding to his launched animation works, he started working on his theatrical career by The Perfect Blue, a psychological-thriller animation released in 1995, this film really stunned the audience by its spectacularly visual and narrative style, so this film was highly praised by film critics, as well as a good feedback from general audience after the screening (Napier, 2005). This action made Kon’s name very well-known as a prospective animator, as well as a film maker.

Kon’s following works were also produced continuously such as Millenium Actress (2001), Tokyo Godfather (2003), and very recently in 2006, Kon released his another animated feature named Paprika, teaming with Sony Pictures Classic, presenting the futuristic sci-fi thriller story, this film was also given positive feedbacks not only in Japan but also in the international level besides Hayao Miyazaki and his animation production house. As Andrew Osmond mentioned in his book, Satoshi Kon: The Illusionist (2008), that Paprika is the great way to introduce Kon to international audience, especially the Westerns, by director’s thematic message, twisted way of narrating and captivating the audience with the fantasy visualisation.

The global success really proves that Satoshi Kon is absolutely considered as one of the world-class film makers, so do his works, especially his debut film, The Perfect Blue and his latest work, Paprika. These two animations are outstandingly projecting the life of people living in Japanese urban space through their twisted-thrilling narrativity, as well as the protagonists appearing in the films. Exactly the same as other films which can literally represent the society and people, these Kon’s animation works, The Perfect Blue and Paprika, are also used reflecting these elements through the imaginary space on film by their simulated settings, crime, fictional characters, or their fantasised and ambiguous behaviours,  which can possibly use as a text to study the social representation, especially the postmodern city and its people, that reflects through the way these two animation films are presented on screen.

Consequently, city settings and people are important factors of film which present the neo-noir vision of urban space.  In this paper, The Perfect Blue and Paprika will be raised as an example illustrating the neo-noir aspects in film, which proceed the story on these urban settings, by observing these fictional characters living their life in an urban city. Therefore after this cinematic observation, we can understand how these Japanese animation features offer their visual and thematic style that we can possibly call them as neo-noir films, which really focus on the noir content rather than the noir visualisation.

City – Cinematic Space

City and film are mutually influent to each other, film projects or simulates the city as its setting where the film’s story takes place, while the city often shapes itself according to its reflection on screen. In Cinema and the City: Film and Urban Societies in a global context (2001), Mark Shield mentioned about the relationship between city and film is that “Thematically, the cinema has, since its inception, been constantly fascinated with the representation of the distinctive spaces, lifestyles and human conditions of the city from the Lumiere Brothers’ Paris of 1895 to John Woo’s Hong kong of 1995”. This really indicates that film and city are tightly attached to each other in a very close relationship, the same way that Film Studies do as an interdisciplinary conjoined factor to other social sciences such as Cultural Studies or Sociology.

Although basically the term of Postmodernism, particularly postmodern city, is seemingly new for people outside the academic field, as long as we, humans, are still related ourselves to our city or culture, we cannot escape perceiving this academic term. David Harvey described in The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (1990) that the postmodern city is a space which has a connection to the rise of historical eclecticism, multiculturalism, and spectacle. From this sentence, we can understand that postmodern city is formed by the consistence of these three elements which are inventing tradition by imitating the older forms, local or ethnic cultures and commercialization of built environment, as given further explanations in Urban Design in the Postmodern Context (Velibeyoglu, 1999).

The postmodern city is absolutely the same as other city which can be projected or represented by film as well. Likewise through these two animation films by Satoshi Kon, we can absolutely feel the sense of that they are really presenting the story of the postmodern city and also its people. The Perfect Blue is a reflection of contemporary Japanese society which contains many postmodern elements such as the metropolis setting in which people lost their connection or misidentified themselves because of the human-invented technology, or the role of media which dominate the life of these characters in film. Likewise, in the film Paprika, the film story is told through the futuristic and fantasised metropolis setting, considered as Tokyo, which give the characters, as well as their city setting, the misplaced or misidentified feeling that turns into the conflict in the film.

Representation of Neo-Noir in urban space

Generally, in Neo-Noir: the New Film Noir Style from Psycho to Collateral, the word “noir” and “neo-noir” are styles of filming that supposedly made around the 1940s and kept continuing their visual and thematic influence to the film production in the twenty-first century (Schwartz, 2005). While noir films are considered as films which were produced by French film makers during the classical noir period or 1940s, neo-noir films are used for contemporary noir film, especially for the post-classical noir film, based on American film studios.

In fact, neo-noir films are almost the same as classic noir films, by its style of composed visual elements or themes of violence and crime. According to the book The Philosophy of Neo-Noir, Mark T. Conard claims that the term “neo-noir” is used only to describe any films coming after the classic noir period, these films still have particular elements of “noir” that contain the theme about the ambiguity in morality and anti-hero protagonists These elements totally give the audience noir sensibility. However, he still adds in his same book that there are some upgraded aspects in each film such as the influnce of psychological element or modern technology, which intentionally provide the audience more sense of up-to-date noir contents. Through these films, we may be able to classify their neo-noir appearances by these following aspects.

Multicultural Elements

As mentioned in this article about the postmodern city, muticulturalism is one of the noticeable characters of the postmodern city, so does the neo-noir film. In this sub-genre of noir, these multicultural aspects are totally affecting the city and its people. We can notice this presentation of multicultural society in The Perfect Blue and Paprika, it is possible to say that these fictional Japanese cities are really imitating the reality.

In these modern days, Japan, and its capital Tokyo, is considered as the powerful country with high-paced living culture, like other metropolis such as New York or London. Technologies and facilities of this city are fully developed, which really help Tokyo grow much rapidly, comparing to other Asian countries. This is really the reason why Japanese people have a very quick access to any information from around the world which help them update their way of living. But in the same time, Japanese people are also conservative, because they have their own cultures which have been forwarded through many generations. Therefore, contemporary Japanese culture is the mixture, between domestic, or old way of living, and imported aspects. This seems to be the cultural duality by which Japanese people are living their life during these present days.

This element really affects to the life of fictional characters presented in both animation film, The Perfect Blue and Paprika. Although, in the first film, we may feel less senses of multicuturalism than the second one, but in fact there are still these elements appearing in film anyway. The Perfect Blue shows the audience that the crime is committed after Mima, the protagonist, decides to abandon her shojo or lolicon idol image, which is totally a famous part of Japanese modern culture, transforming herself to be a sexy-looking actress, which has been adapted from the image of a Hollywood or Western actress.

While The Perfect Blue is presenting the shape of muticulturalism through the transformation of Mima’s identity, in Paprika, there are many multicultural elements, illustrated during the film. Especially, in the parade, Kon intends to put this variety of cultures in the scene where we can notice the elements presented in the dream parade. In this scene, those people who gather in the parade represent the muticulturalist aspects in Japan such as we can see the Japanese dolls walking in the parade alongside with Russian dolls, as well as other Werstern-style-dressing dolls. Besides that, we can see other cultural representation joining in this parade for example, the Chinese warriors, the American Statue of Liberty, the European Knight’s armour or the Siamese dancing girl etc.

In addition, in the film Paprika, Kon still puts these muticultural elements presenting through the role of Paprika, as we know that she is a character in dreamland, so she is capable of trasforming herself into many ways, including her costumes. In many scenes, the way that Paprika’s dressing absolutely show the multicultural aspects such as the Chinese dress she wears when she is helping her chief from the parade, Sun Wukong or the Monkey King costume from the Eastern famous mythology Journey to the West or the green fairly-looking dress, as Peter Pan’s Tinker Bell, these are the good examples of multicultural elements in this film which are also considered as neo-noir characteristics presented in films, according to the result of them.

During these films, these multiculturalists are invading the peace of city and its people, especially in Paprika, the multicultural-toy parade is ruining the normal way of living, forcing them to join the parade line unconsciously which lures them from their unique identity and brings the city a chaotic situation, so do other postmodern city, where people do not know exactly who they really are according to the social-border abolishment which merges people from different culture, ethnicity or class together, turning them into one final society in which everybody is not different at all and putting the neo-noir paranoid ambient; not knowing the inner mind of each other, into these animation films.

Double identity characters

The idea of double-identity, especially in the protagonists, seems to be the distinguished neo-noir element presenting in these films.Since the first part of each film, we can notice that protagonists always relate themselves to the mysterious or unsolved crime which turns to be worse after that they feel uncertain about their own self, doubting their “second” identity as a crime committer. In The Perfect Blue, Mima Kirigoe, an ex pop-idol from the J-pop (Japanese-pop) group called “CHAM!”, decides to leave the group, neglecting her idol image and becoming an actress in a TV-serie called Double Bind. This decision really makes Mima have two identities; an ex-pop idol and a newcomer actress. Similarly, in Paprika, Docter Atsuko Chiba, the leading character of the story, is a psychiatrist who treats her patients by going inside their dreams under of her alternate identity named Paprika. While Atsuko seems very frosty and serious, differently, her alternate identity, Paprika, is more charming, easy-going and friendly.  This is also the double-identity presenting through the film’s  protagonist.

This negative effect of double-identity characteristic is noticeable in The Perfect Blue, in the film we, the audience, will not even know which character committed those criminal acts, according to its noir story-telling style that everyone such Mima, her unconcious self, her stalker, or anyboby around her could be that mysterious serial-killer. At the last part of film, we can see Mima’s dissociative identity disorder symptom, she does not know which identity; a pop idol or an actress, is really herself. These symptoms are exaggerated through the use of rapidly jump cuts, fascinating fantasy such as the ghostly Mima’s doppelganger, and by the foreshadowing of plot points through filmed scenes for the psychological thriller TV series in which Mima takes part, as well as the haunting repetition of Mima’s saying “who are you” entire the film.

In the mean time, in Paprika, the coexistence between Atsuko and Paprika, as well as the connection between reality and dream, turns to be a problem to the audience or other characters in film, because it seems very difficult to identify which one is real and which one is only an fantasised identity. This ambiguity in protagonist’s self which causes the misconception of identity gives the suspicious emotion to the audience, petrifying them with the narrativity of these neo-noir stylish animations.

The influence of  human’s inventions

Originally, crime is the most outstanding aspect which we can see in general noir films, so do neo-noir films. The appearance of criminal behaviours is still existing in this sub-genre of  noir film. In the postmodern city, like settings of The Perfect Blue or Paprika, crime is not only a man-made action, but also because of those man-made invented technologies such as computer, internet, TV-serie, film or other scientific inventions. In these animation films, these technological divices are the main cause, which starts all the important conflicts in each film.

Clearly, in Paprika, Kon presents that he really concerns about the influnce of modern technologies which dominate our life nowaday. In the film, the DC-mini,  the dream projecting machine, has been stolen from laboratory and been used as a terrorist divice to destroy the fictional reality in film. The DC-mini is the same device which Dortor Atsuko (or Paprika) uses for examining her client’s mind, this seems to be a good thing for modern medical treatment, curing people’s mental problem through their dream, as soon as the villain steals it, it turns to be an evil’s tool to ruin this postmodern city. All entire the film, Doctor Seijiro Inui, the chairman of Atsuko’s scientific institution always mentions about the immorality of interfering or intruding other people’s dreamland, he says that dream is the sacred place only for its owner, not for general audience. But he finally accepts this device and turns to be a villain himself, using the DC-mini to control and to damage the city in order to fulfil his greed of power by merging dreams into reality. This is really showing a curse which is driven by human’s scientific inventions.

In the same way, in The Perfect Blue, Mima’s identity is shaped and forwared  by media such as newspaper, magazine, television or radio. According to her idol career, her life, as well as her personal life, might be unavoidably followed by those newspaper or tabloid journalists, evem stalkers who are always creepingly following their beloved idol. This lack of personal privacy is totally caused by this existence of media which is influent the image of Mima, herself, in the film and drives her to be jeopadised under her mental malfunctioning situation.

These looks like a parory, mocking the postmodern city where people are always depending themselves on technologies without paying attention to their necessity. In Paprika, there is a parade scene where the people, who are spelt in dream and are transformed to many human-invented things thanks to their fantasy, are parading and celebrating along the city street. In this final scene’s parade, there are many people who are transformed into creatures with the shape of technological equipments such as Japanese school girls with mobile-phone shaped head, salary men who transforms to be the walking musical intruments, or Doctor Tokita who changes himself into a robot. This curse causes the city and its people to encounter the apocalypse. This fictional problem presents the neo-noir aspect about the over-usage of modern technology which seems convenient but, in fact, harmful on the other hand. Eactly the same as a classic noir character who has lots of faces hidden in himself, this really turns the setting into the city of crime, not the prospective one.

References

Bould, Mark, Glitre, Kathrina, and Tuck, Greg (Eds.). Neo-Noir. London: Wallflower Press, 2009.

Conard, Mark T. (Eds.).  The Philosophy of Neo-Noir. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 2009.

Harvey, David. The condition of postmodernity : an enquiry into the origins of cultural change. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1990.

Mes, Tom, and Sharp, Jasper. The Midnight Eye Guide to New Japanese Film. California: Stone Bridge Press, 2004.

Napier, Susan. Forward. Anime: From Akira to Howl’s Moving Castle. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. XVII.

Osmond, Andrew. Satoshi Kon: The Illusionist. California: Stone Bridge Press, 2008.

Paprika. Dir. Satoshi Kon. Writ. Yasutaka Tsutsui, Seishi Minakami. Perf. Megumi Hayashibara, Toru Furuya, Koichi Yamadera. Sony Pictures, 2007. DVD.

Schwartz, Ronald. Introduction. Neo-Noir: the New Film Noir Style from Psycho to Collateral. Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2005. pp. IX-XIV

Shield, M. and Fitzmaurice, T. (Eds.). Cinema and the City: Film and Urban Societies in a global context. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.

The Perfect Blue. Dir. Satoshi Kon. Writ. Sadayuki Murai, Yoshikazu Takeuchi. Perf. Junko Iwao, Rica Matsumoto, Shinpachi Tsuji. Manga Video, 2002. DVD.

Velibeyoglu, Koray.  Urban Design in the Postmodern Context. Ph.D Diss. Izmir Institute of Technology, 1999. 10 January 2010. Web. http://www.angelfire.com/ar/corei/ud.html.

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The Scene Analysis of the Godfather: When death visits the family…

The Godfather: Part I (1972)

Directed by Francis Ford Coppola

When death visits the family…

: Scene Analysis – from the Death of Don Vito Corleone to his Funeral Ceremony


“Do you spend time with your family? Good. Because a man that doesn’t spend time with his family can never be a real man.” – Don Vito Corleone (The Godfather: Part I, 1972)

It seems very strange if someone shakes his head negatively and says that he doesn’t know the existence of the film “The Godfather”, as well as the Francis Ford Coppola’s “The Godfather Trilogy, because these epic stories , especially the first part, have totally stormed the American continent, and all around the world in the following period after it was firstly launched in 1972. The film “The Godfather” was very outstanding in that period according its anti-Hollywood cliché theme and content, by presenting the different style of gangster film through the distinctively visual and contextual elements which are outstandingly and directly noticeable among the worldwide audience, and lead them to understand literally the thematic message while they are appreciating and involving themselves into the life, business and violence of Corleone Family, the protagonists.

As we have all known about the director, Francis Ford Coppola, through his fame in directing of distinctive works such as Apocalypse Now (1979), The Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1992) or his latest film Tetro (2009), he made such a big impact in Hollywood as soon as his “The Godfather part I” was lauched in cinemas, this film was absolutely impressed in worldwide, noticed by the positive feedbacks from film critics and audiences. Coppola used the richness of visualisation and also the well-designed plot driving us, the audience, into the illegal and violent world of Corleone Family, by narrating the story through the protagonists who don the leading position of family business which can be seperated in three generations; Don Vito, the founder of Corleone family, Santino, Don Vito’s first son, and Michael, his third son. In each period, there are plenty of highly-regarded scenes, especially in the aesthetic way of presenting and chanting its story, we can see those scenes through which the director used for describing the small pieces of puzzles that tell us more about the story of Corleone Family in a very intellectual method.

 

In this paper, there will be a presentation of scene analysis in this “The Godfather”, focusing on selected scenic moments in the first episode or “The Godfather: Part I” of this trilogy serie; the Death of Don Vito Corleone and his funeral. These continuous events in film are absolutely rich in its content, visually and thematically and, in the meantime, there are some visual aspects which we can use these scenes as an example to study more about this film’s story and also the way that Francis Ford Coppola, the director, created the impressively narrated story which positively attracts  the mind of audiences from many countries and generations for all times, eventhough the film, itself, might present the immorality or misbehaviours such as illegal business, mafioso organisation, as well as the violence used to solve any problems of protagonists since Don Vito to his chair successor, Michael Corleone. So we may willingly enjoy this fascinating journey and stick ourselves to the seat, the screen as well, to see what will happen with Corleone Family and their businesses at the end of film.

The Death of Don Vito Corleone Scene


In this scene, there are two characters presented which are Don Vito Corleone, who has retired himself from the “Don” position, and his beloved young nephew, Anthony Corleone, the son of Michael and Kay. The scene takes its place in an orange garden inside the area of the Corleone house, where we can see that Don Vito and Anthony are spending their warm and sunny afternoon together. This scene is really surprising because we can see the ex-don, Don Vito, who once ruled all the Corleone mafioso family, totally quitting his leading position in that mafia business, or as known as “Nostra Costra” in Sicilian-Italian term, and spend his times taking good care of his biological family, especially  with his future business successor Anthony. This seems to be a very nice and adorable scenic image as an ideal family, a grandfather playing with his tiny nephew, two generations being and sharing their lives together. But however, unfortunately, this turns to be the last moment of this old man’s life. Although this looks really dramatised, it represents the ideological concept about the family, that every member should be together, caring for each other during their life.

Throughout the scene, we can notice, for all times, that Don Vito is trying to teach his young nephew to realise his original identity, which is absolutely not American, but Sicilian, himself. As we all know that Sicily is Mediterranean island, governed as an autonomous region of Italy. Moreover, Sicily is widely known as a major productive and   export region of Mediterranean agriculture fresh products such as citrus fruits, olives and famous Sicilian oranges due to its fertile soil and tropical climate, therefore there is a very long period of  hot growing season in this region which really matches with these Mediterranean plants to grow. So this plant, oranges, and so does the orange garden as well, are used by the director as a reflection of Sicily and Sicilian identity of these characters. In the beginning part of this scene, Don Vito is teaching Anthony to water orange trees, if we consider these orange trees as a symbol presenting the Sicily, this action is able to be translated that he is trying to persuade his nephew into the Sicilian route and to install this thought about original identity in Anthony’s mind since he is a child to dispatch this nationally identical heritage to his heir, not only for Corleone Family’s existence, but also their dark side business.

The character of Don Vito in this scene is obviously changed from the first period of the film, as he was in charge of the Don’s chair in the office. Though, in that room, we see him as a violent, cruel and cold-blooded person, on contrary he is also a warm husband, father and grandfather. In his final scene of life, after taking a role of a monster, chasing his grandson, Anthony, he dies suddenly in that small orange garden near their family’s house. This place seems like a exact place to die for Don Vito Corleone, as it has been mentioned in the previous paragraph that oranges may signify the Sicily region, therefore we can understand before he, Don Vito, starts choking and throwing himself on the ground, Anthony has asked him “where are you”, which is the last diction he can ever talk to his grandfather. This Anthony’s interrogative sentence is possibly implied that he is asking about Don Vito’s homeland and where he and his Corleone Family ideologically are, so his death, in the following shot, is the right answer he decides to tell his nephew that this place under the shadow of orange trees is their most appreciating place to live and also to die. Therefore Don Vito’s death happens in this orange garden, this seems that he finally ends his life on the simulated ground of Sicily which maintains symbolically his truthfulness in his Sicilian-Italian identity. So in the last scene after Anthony’s disappearance from the scene, the director intends to leave his body alone on the garden ground in the center of the frame, there are only those orange trees, the symbol of Sicily, who are witnessing his death, while the Mediterranean breeze is blowing gently through his body, carrying this great Sicilian soul to his warm and sunny homeland.

The Don Vito’s Funeral Scene

funeral

This scene is the sequel part of the Don Vito’s death scene. From that scene, Coppola leaves the last shot, as a long shot, focusing on the orange garden which we can see his dead body lying peacefully on the ground through bushes and shadows of these trees. Immediately, he turns his frame into another scene by softly fading the previous frame and slowly merging the orange garden picture into the cemetery gate where people come to Don Vito’s funeral. The first thing that we must notice after dissolving these frames is that there is a giant Christian cross and two angel statues at the front of this cemetery. This cross is put in the center of the picture, exactly the same position as Don Vito’s body in the previous scene, so it seems like the director wants to insist his thought about Sicilian identity and their homeland in which Don Vito’s soul may rest in peace, visually in that orange garden, signifying Sicily and comparing it as a sacred place, especially for Sicilians who abandoned their maternal land and have been seeking for their fortune in America, a remote land. Lastly, the most desirable thing for Don Vito is being close to his Sicilian ground, surrounded by his beloved members of biological family, in this land where the Christian cross is standing at the front, as well as two angels, guarding them, he may perfectly and eternally rest himself as the land of God.

However, this cemetery seems very close to American city center, because we can see cars passing on the expressway which is presented as a scenic background when funeral guest’ cars are entering the cemetery gate and heading right to the Don Vito’s grave. This look like a message from Don Corleone to tell his successor, also his family, to keep digging for prosperity in this land of freedom, but do remind that never forget who they originally are.

Among the graves in this cemetery, Don Vito’s grave is seemingly outstanding through its height and its elegance by the angel sculptures decorated on the gigantic gravestone in order to express the power of Don Vito, himself, and also of his family. Similarly to any other scenes, the idea of “family” is always appearing in this moment. In the funeral scene, we might notice the gravestone and those decorated sculptures, the adult angel surrounding by three little angels, which represent symbolically the Corleone Family, Don Vito and his three sons; Santino, Fredo and Michael. In this shot, Coppola intends to pose the adult angel sculpture looking on the right side of frame, where Corleone Family are all sitting in that position. The angel seems to look especially for Michael, according to his center-framed position, this means although Don Vito has passed away but his though and way of living are still existing deeply in each family member, and in the same time, he puts his trust on his last son, Michael, as his “Don” chair successor to maintain these two family; biological and Mafiosi, to reach the proper destination for which he had always expected.

Moreover, in this scene, it is really surprising that Fredo, the second son, does not appear himself in the scene. This character’s disappearance means that Coppola needs to suggest the audience that Fredo is very weak and does not deserve to Coleone Family, as he wept like a woman as soon as seeing his father being shot by enemies or he took Moe Greene’s side instead of Michael, who reflects his Corleone Family, during business negotiation in Las Vegas. After all these weak and ignorant presentation, Fredo is gradually becoming the outsider of his own biological family, which leads him to death at the end of The Godfather: Part II.

During the funeral ceremony, there are a lot of crowned coming to pay his respect to his beloved Don, we can see they are bringing a stalk of red rose to drop upon his grave. In the early part of The Godfather Part I, we see Don Vito wearing his black suit, on that suit there is a red rose attached, on his daughter, Connie’s wedding day. These roses are standing for his Italian identity which is semiotised by the Il Tricolore Italian national flag; red, white and green, exactly the same as the colours of these roses, which have its green leaves, red blossom and white pollen. Therefore, red roses are used in this scene by those guests to pay respect to Don Vito.

In the scene, we see Michael Corleone talking to Tom Hagen about who, between Clemenza and Tessio, is the traitor of their family business. According to the last scene we see Don Vito and Michael together before his death, he warned Michael to be careful of the man who comes to him in Barzini meeting, that one is the traitor of family, which is later revealed that it is Tessio. So in this scene, visually, Coppola hides his hint about this, Emilio Barzini comes and places his rose upon the grave, then the camera moves to capture Michael’s face. After that we see Barzini talking and shaking his hands to men in black suit, the camera goes back to Michael again for the second time, and then finally the frame returns to Barzini’s position. In this moment, we can notice that Sal Tessio is walking straight from the back of Barzini, the enemy, in order to talk about the meeting arrangement with Michael, not like Peter Clemenza, Johnny Fontane or others veteran menber of mafioso organisation. This way of opening Tessio’s appearance in the funeral is indirectly presenting that he, Tessio, is obviously from the enemy’s side, so we can know that he is the family’s traitor. In addition, all entire the funeral, we, the audience, never see Tessio placing his rose on the Don Vito’s grave, neither look or participate with Don Vito and other Corleone Family’s member, except Michael. This Tessio’s action is supporting the previous visual element that Coppola really wants to reveal his betraying indirectly through this character’s presentation in the scene.

These scenes are only examples for presenting the value, especially in aesthetics, of which Francis Ford Coppola’s The Godfather: Part I is really praised by audiences from all over the world. Every single scene of this film, also others parts, is well designed and rich by the contextual aspects which have been waiting to be interpreted; such as the Baptism scene which is able to say that this scene is totally his master-piece work, and also the great filming work of all time. With his perfect combination, by using the paradoxical elements, such as Christianity and violence, teaming with the film technical method, especially the montage like the rapidly cross-cuttings or juxtaposing shots between two situations, which exactly the same as these two selected sequences. Coppola uses these outstanding aspects to create the alternative visual presentation through his film which not only tells the story but also states the thematic message, and in the same time develops audiences’ emotions, leading them directly to the world of Corleone Family’s business, facing and solving conflicts together with these protagonists. So we could possibly say that from these special elements, for instant in these two scenes, Francis Ford Coppola has finally elevated his work into another level of film making which can describe literally that the hidden context can be driven mutually with entertainment.

Lastly, according to its artistic and aesthetic value, it is able to say that this film is really good example as a intellectual text for studying film by looking at its signification in the way it is shot or created, also its strong aesthetic aspects in film which all present that this film, The Godfather: Part I, is superb in its plot planning, impressive theme and also distinctive mise-en-scènes which make it well famous and one becoming one of the best films ever made in the history.

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